Some of these problems have already affected the availability on the market of both Reality and Avanti, a new male condom. Avanti is the first condom available for use by individuals allergic to latex (the material used for the overwhelming majority of currently available male condoms) and the first male polyurethane condom to be approved by the FDA. Avanti went onto the U.S. market in a limited number of western states in the fall of 1994, approved by the FDA before the agency began requiring manufacturers of medical devices to perform extensive clinical testing prior to marketing. Although it is actually made of a synthetic material that is similar to the material used for Reality, the FDA determined that Avanti was ''substantially equivalent" to the latex condom instead. The effect of this ruling was to exempt Avanti from the more rigorous clinical testing that had been required for Reality. However, the thinness of the material used for the first Avanti to go on the market produced breakage rates judged to be unacceptable. A thicker material is now being tested in clinical trials under the aegis of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (American Health Consultants 1995; Contraceptive Technology Update June 1995).
There are several approaches to contraception, often grouped as "traditional methods," that have undergone scientific scrutiny in recent decades, resulting in newly rediscovered, reliable, and efficacious methods of family planning that do not require dependence on the contraceptive technologies of the type described above. These methods rely on time-based barriers to conception, behavioral based barriers to conception, or both. Time-based barriers to conception are methods that allow coitus at times when a conception cannot occur, while behavioral barriers are actions that prohibit semen from entering the vagina. Both are
Although the past decade has seen the introduction of levonorgestrel subdermal implants (Norplant) and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera or DMPA), these are technical variations of existing hormonal methods; they have new and/or different advantages and disadvantages, but they do not represent truly new physiologic concepts. The same can be said for some of the new female barrier methods, which, while their configurations are novel and represent a great deal of research, are still not manifestations of completely new ways of thinking about contraceptive technology. Currently available methods of emergency contraception, while receiving fresh attention, use existing products, although expansion of their availability and utilization would be, in itself, an important novelty.
CONTRACEPTIVE TECHNOLOGY 2016 BOSTON would be a platform where several vital areas can be discoursed. Several of these are going to be Contraceptive, Contraceptive Technology, Birth Control, Sexual Pharmacology, Sexual Medicine and Gynecological.
Contraceptive Technology, 1988-1989
Robert Anthony Hatcher
Snippet view - 1988