There are three eras to the Persian language, which are Old Persian, Middle Persian and Modern Persian. Old Persian dates from around 525BC to 300BC, Middle Persian dates from around 300BC to 800 AD, and Modern Persian dates from 800AD to the present day. This means that many speakers of Modern Persian can also understand several texts that were written a thousand years ago. While the Persian language is a language that has managed to keep many of its original grammatical features, it is also a language that has influenced and been influenced by many of the languages surrounding it.
Persian is a subgroup of West Iranian languages that includes the closely related Persian languages of Dari and Tajik; the less closely related languages of Luri, Bakhtiari, and Kumzari; and the non-Persian dialects of Fars Province. More distantly relatives of this group include Kurdish, spoken in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran; and Baluchi, spoken in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan. Even more distantly related are languages of the East Iranian group, which include, for example, Pushto, spoken in Afghanistan; Ossete, spoken in North Ossetian, South Ossetian, and Caucusus USSR; and Yaghnobi, spoken in Tajikistan. Other Iranian languages of note are Old Persian and Avestan, the sacred language of the Zoroastrians by which texts exist from the 6th century BC. Of the Indo-European family of languages, West and East Iranian comprise the Iranian group of the Indo-Iranian branch. Indo-Iranian languages are spoken in a wide area, stretching from portions of eastern Turkey and eastern Iraq to western India. The other main division of Indo-Iranian, in addition to Iranian, are the Indo-Aryan languages, which is comprised of many languages of the Indian subcontinent. This includes Sanskrit, Hindi/Urdu, Bengali, Gujerati, Punjabi, and Sindhi.
Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadai (at Morghab) was first inscribed in two languages of Akkadian and Elamite. After 521 B.C Dariush the Great ordered the” Mikhi alphabet” to be implemented in Persian language and added the third language (the Old Persian) to the other two inscriptions on tomb of Cyrus. Please see “The Persian Empire” by J.M. Cook.
The reason that the Pahlavi language did not survive and the present Arabic alphabet replaced it is; according to an Iranian scholar whom I do not recall his name, was that the Pahlavi language, grammatically could not be implemented and used within Persian language while Arabic language could be “Persionized” and vise versa. For example; a singular Persian word can be made plural using Arabic grammar structure and vise versa but this could not be done with Pahlavi.
|Noun||1.||Farsi - a person of Iranian descent; "many Farsi emigrated to India near Bombay"|
Irani, Iranian, Persian - a native or inhabitant of Iran; "the majority of Irani are Persian Shiite Muslims"
|2.||Farsi - the language of Persia (Iran) in any of its ancient forms|
Iranian language, Iranian - the modern Persian language spoken in Iran
Noruz, Nowrooz, Nowruz - (Persian) the new year holiday in Iran and Azerbaijan and Afghanistan and Pakistan and parts of India and among the Kurds; comes at the vernal equinox